The conference took place on Saturday, November 15, 1884 at the headquarters of Bismarck, on the Wilhelmstrasse. The main dominant powers of the conference were France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Portugal. They have revived Africa without taking into account the cultural and linguistic boundaries that already exist. At the end of the conference, Africa was divided into 50 colonies. The monitors determined who had control over each of these new services. They also planned, without commitment, to end the slave trade in Africa. Later, the powers will decide whether and under what conditions health checks should be exercised on ships involved in the navigation of the river itself. Before the conference, European diplomats addressed African governments in the same way as in the Western Hemisphere, linking them to local trade networks. In the early 1800s, European demand for ivory, which was then often used in the manufacture of luxury goods, led many European distributors to Africa`s domestic markets.  Europe`s spheres of power and influence were then limited to coastal Africa, with Europeans having until then established only commercial posts.  The conference proposed by Portugal to assert its particular right to control of the mouth of the Congo was made necessary by the jealousy and suspicion with which the great European powers were considering the attempts of the other to contemplate colonial expansion in Africa. The general act of the Berlin conference declared the Congo River basin neutral (a fact that did not prevent the Allies from extending the war to this territory during the First World War); guaranteed freedom for trade and navigation for all states in the watershed; to ban the slave trade; and rejected Portugal`s claims on the mouth of the Congo River, thus allowing the creation of the independent free state of Congo, which Britain, France and Germany had already accepted in principle.
In the whole of Congo, ships and goods travelling on the river are subject to no transit costs, regardless of their origin or destination. The reluctance to govern what the Europeans had conquered was evident in the minutes of the Berlin conference, but especially in the principle of actual occupation. In agreement with the opposing views of Germany and Great Britain, the powers finally agreed that it could be created by a European power that built a kind of base on the coast from which it could spread freely inland. The Europeans did not believe that the rules of occupation on the ground required European hegemony. The Belgians originally wanted to welcome this “effective occupation”, which required provisions that would “establish peace”, but Britain and France were the powers that had removed this amendment from the final document. After witnessing the political and economic rivalries between European empires in the last quarter of the 19th century, the formal partition of Africa prevented European countries from fighting on the territory. The conference was an opportunity to channel latent European hostilities outward, to create new areas for European expansion in the face of the growing interests of the United States, Russia and Japan, and to create a constructive dialogue to limit future hostilities. In the last years of the 19th century, informal imperialism went from “informal imperialism,” through military influence and economic domination, to direct domination that led to colonial imperialism. Berlin conference: a drawing of the Berlin conference. The main dominant powers of the conference were France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Portugal. Freedom of conscience and religious tolerance are expressly guaranteed to natives, no less than subjects and foreigners.
The free and public exercise of all forms of divine worship and the right to build buildings for religious purposes and to organize religious missions belonging to all professions of faith must not be restricted or hindered.